Osteopontin is an Arg-Gly-Asp (RGD)–containing acidic glycoprotein postulated to mediate cellular adhesion and migration in a growing number of normal and pathological conditions through interaction with integrin molecules. In this report, we have investigated the potential contributions of osteopontin and one of its receptors, the αvβ3 integrin, to endothelial regenerative processes by using both in vivo and in vitro models. In vivo, uninjured rat arterial endothelium had undetectable levels of osteopontin and β3-integrin mRNA by in situ hybridization. After balloon catheter denudation, osteopontin mRNA levels correlated temporally and spatially with active endothelial proliferation and migration, with the highest levels observed at the wound edge between 8 hours and 2 weeks after injury, declining to uninjured levels at 6 weeks, when regeneration was complete. Osteopontin protein levels, as determined by immunocytochemistry, paralleled the time course of mRNA expression. Likewise, β3-integrin mRNA and protein levels were substantially elevated in regenerating endothelial cells but were not detectable in uninjured or healed endothelium. In vitro, rat smooth muscle cell–derived and bacterial expressed mouse recombinant osteopontins both stimulated the adhesion and directed migration of bovine aortic endothelial cells through interactions with the αvβ3 receptor. Structural mutants of osteopontin confirmed the importance of the RGD domain for both adhesion and migration of endothelial cells through αvβ3. These data suggest important roles for osteopontin and β3 integrin in regenerating endothelium.
By interfering with the ability of airway epithelial cells to support repair processes, cigarette smoke could contribute to alterations of airway structures and functions that characterize chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The current study assessed the ability of cigarette smoke extract (CSE) to alter human airway epithelial cell chemotaxis, proliferation, and contraction of three-dimensional collagen gels, a model of extracellular matrix remodeling. The volatile components contained in cigarette smoke, acetaldehyde and acrolein, were able to inhibit all three processes. Nonvolatile components contained within lyophilized CSE also inhibited chemotaxis but displayed no activity in the other two bioassays. CSE also inhibited the ability of airway epithelial cells to release transforming growth factor (TGF)- β and fibronectin. Exogenous fibronectin was unable to restore epithelial cell contraction of collagen gels. Exogenous TGF- β partially restored the ability of airway epithelial cells to contract collagen gels and to produce fibronectin. This supports a role for inhibition of TGF- β release in mediating the inhibitory effects of cigarette smoke. Taken together, the results of the current study suggest that epithelial cells present in the airways of smokers may be altered in their ability to support repair responses, which may contribute to architectural disruptions present in the airways in COPD associated with cigarette smoking.
NADPH oxidase has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular biology. The goal of the present study was to determine whether NADPH oxidase activity is important for endothelial cell growth and migration. In proliferation assays, growth factor- or serum-induced DNA synthesis in three different types of human endothelial cells was abrogated by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, but not by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced migration of human endothelial cells was suppressed in the presence of NADPH oxidase inhibitors. These results support a potential role for NADPH oxidase in mediating angiogenesis.
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Cell migration occurs as a highly-regulated cycle of cell polarization, membrane extension at the leading edge, adhesion, contraction of the cell body, and release from the extracellular matrix at the trailing edge. In this study, we investigated the involvement of SNARE-mediated membrane trafficking in cell migration. Using a dominant-negative form of the enzyme N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor as a general inhibitor of SNARE-mediated membrane traffic and tetanus toxin as a specific inhibitor of VAMP3/cellubrevin, we conducted transwell migration assays and determined that serum-induced migration of CHO-K1 cells is dependant upon SNARE function. Both VAMP3-mediated and VAMP3-independent traffic were involved in regulating this cell migration. Inhibition of SNARE-mediated membrane traffic led to a decrease in the protrusion of lamellipodia at the leading edge of migrating cells. Additionally, the reduction in cell migration resulting from the inhibition of SNARE function was accompanied by perturbation of a Rab11-containing alpha(5)beta(1) integrin compartment and a decrease in cell surface alpha(5)beta(1) without alteration to total cellular integrin levels. Together, these observations suggest that inhibition of SNARE-mediated traffic interferes with the intracellular distribution of integrins and with the membrane remodeling that contributes to lamellipodial extension during cell migration.
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LGD1069 (Targretin®) is a selective retinoid X receptor (RXR) ligand, which is used in patients for cutaneous T-cell lymphoma. Our published study reported that LGD1069 inhibited tumor-induced angiogenesis in non-small cell lung cancer. In present study, we found that LGD1069 suppressed the proliferation, adhesion, invasion and migration of endothelial cells directly, and affected the expression of vegf and some matrix genes.
Human airway epithelial cells (HAEC) constitutively express the CXC chemokine receptor CXCR3, which regulates epithelial cell movement. In diseases such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and asthma, characterized by denudation of the epithelial lining, epithelial cell migration may contribute to airway repair and reconstitution. This study compared the potency and efficacy of three CXCR3 ligands, I-TAC/CXCL11, IP-10/CXCL10, and Mig/CXCL9, as inducers of chemotaxis in HAEC and examined the underlying signaling pathways involved. Studies were performed in cultured HAEC from normal subjects and the 16-HBE cell line. In normal HAEC, the efficacy of I-TAC-induced chemotaxis was 349 ± 88% (mean ± SE) of the medium control and approximately one-half the response to epidermal growth factor, a highly potent chemoattractant. In normal HAEC, Mig, IP-10, and I-TAC induced chemotaxis with similar potency and a rank order of efficacy of I-TAC = IP-10 > Mig. Preincubation with pertussis toxin completely blocked CXCR3-induced migration. Of interest, intracellular [Ca2+] did not rise in response to I-TAC, IP-10, or Mig. I-TAC induced a rapid phosphorylation (5–10 min) of two of the three MAPKs, i.e., p38 and ERK1/2. Pretreatment of HAEC with the p38 inhibitor SB 20358 or the PI3K inhibitor wortmannin dose-dependently inhibited the chemotactic response to I-TAC. In contrast, the ERK1/2 inhibitor U0126 had no effect on chemotaxis. These data indicate that in HAEC, CXCR3-mediated chemotaxis involves a G protein, which activates both the p38 MAPK and PI3K pathways in a calcium-independent fashion.
Previous studies showed that loss of the T-cell protein tyrosine phosphatase (TC-PTP) induces Rab4a-dependent recycling of the platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) β-receptor in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs). Here we identify protein kinase C (PKC) α as the critical signaling component that regulates the sorting of the PDGF β-receptor at the early endosomes. Down-regulation of PKC abrogated receptor recycling by preventing the sorting of the activated receptor into EGFP-Rab4a positive domains on the early endosomes. This effect was mimicked by inhibition of PKCα, using myristoylated inhibitory peptides or by knockdown of PKCα with shRNAi. In wt MEFs, short-term preactivation of PKC by PMA caused a ligand-induced PDGF β-receptor recycling that was dependent on Rab4a function. Together, these observations demonstrate that PKC activity is necessary for recycling of ligand-stimulated PDGF β-receptor to occur. The sorting also required Rab4a function as it was prevented by expression of EGFP-Rab4aS22N. Preventing receptor sorting into recycling endosomes increased the rate of receptor degradation, indicating that the sorting of activated receptors at early endosomes directly regulates the duration of receptor signaling. Activation of PKC through the LPA receptor also induced PDGF β-receptor recycling and potentiated the chemotactic response to PDGF-BB. Taken together, our present findings indicate that sorting of PDGF β-receptors on early endosomes is regulated by sequential activation of PKCα and Rab4a and that this sorting step could constitute a point of cross-talk with other receptors.