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A Perivascular Origin for Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Multiple Human Organs

Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), the archetypal multipotent progenitor cells derived in cultures of developed organs, are of unknown identity and native distribution. We have prospectively identified perivascular cells, principally pericytes, in multiple human organs including skeletal muscle, pancreas, adipose tissue, and placenta, on CD146, NG2, and PDGF-Rbeta expression and absence of hematopoietic, endothelial, and myogenic cell markers. Perivascular cells purified from skeletal muscle or nonmuscle tissues were myogenic in culture and in vivo. Irrespective of their tissue origin, long-term cultured perivascular cells retained myogenicity; exhibited at the clonal level osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic potentials; expressed MSC markers; and migrated in a culture model of chemotaxis. Expression of MSC markers was also detected at the surface of native, noncultured perivascular cells. Thus, blood vessel walls harbor a reserve of progenitor cells that may be integral to the origin of the elusive MSCs and other related adult stem cells.

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Adrenomedullin as a Novel Antimigration Factor of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells

The present study investigated the effect of adrenomedullin, a novel vasorelaxant peptide, on the migration of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) by using the Boyden-chamber method. Fetal calf serum (FCS) and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)–BB strongly stimulated SMC migration. Adrenomedullin clearly inhibited SMC migration stimulated with 5% and 10% FCS in a concentration-dependent manner. The migration induced by 10 and 25 ng/mL PDGF-BB was also inhibited by adrenomedullin in a concentration-dependent manner. Inhibition by adrenomedullin of FCS- and PDGF-induced SMC migration was paralleled by an increase in the cellular level of cAMP. In fact, the percent increase in cAMP level was strongly correlated with the percent decrease in migration activity of SMCs after treatment with adrenomedullin. 8-Bromo cAMP, a cAMP analogue, reproduced the inhibition by adrenomedullin of FCS- and PDGF-induced SMC migration. An activator of adenylate cyclase, forskolin, also reduced FCS- and PDGF-induced SMC migration. These data indicate that adrenomedullin inhibits the migration of SMCs stimulated with FCS and PDGF, probably through a cAMP-dependent process. On the basis of these results and the finding that adrenomedullin is synthesized in and secreted from vascular endothelial cells, adrenomedullin may play a role as a local antimigration factor in some pathophysiological states.

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Antioxidants Improve Impaired Insulin-Mediated Glucose Uptake and Prevent Migration and Proliferation of Cultured Rabbit Coronary Smooth Muscle Cells Induced by High Glucose

Background—To explore the role of intracellular oxidative stress in high glucose–induced atherogenesis, we examined the effect of probucol and/or α-tocopherol on the migration and growth characteristics of cultured rabbit coronary vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs).

Methods and Results—Chronic high-glucose-medium (22.2 mmol/L) treatment increased platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB–mediated VSMC migration, [3H]thymidine incorporation, and cell number compared with VSMCs treated with normal-glucose medium (5.6 mmol/L+16.6 mmol/L mannose). Probucol and α-tocopherol significantly suppressed high glucose–induced increase in VSMC migration, cell number, and [3H]thymidine incorporation. Probucol and α-tocopherol suppressed high glucose–induced elevation of the cytosolic ratio of NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and membrane-bound protein kinase C activation. Probucol, α-tocopherol, and calphostin C improved the high glucose–induced suppression of insulin-mediated [3H]deoxyglucose uptake. Chronic high-glucose treatment increased the oxidative stress, which was significantly suppressed by probucol, α-tocopherol, suramin, and calphostin C.

Conclusions—These findings suggest that probucol and α-tocopherol may suppress high glucose–induced VSMC migration and proliferation via suppression of increases in the cytosolic ratio of free NADH/NAD+, phospholipase D, and protein kinase C activation induced by high glucose, which result in reduction in intracellular oxidative stress.

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Stromal Cell-Derived Factor 1α Activates LIM Kinase 1 and Induces Cofilin Phosphorylation for T-Cell Chemotaxis

Stromal cell-derived factor 1 α (SDF-1α), the ligand for G-protein-coupled receptor CXCR4, is a chemotactic factor for T lymphocytes. LIM kinase 1 (LIMK1) phosphorylates cofilin, an actin-depolymerizing and -severing protein, at Ser-3 and regulates actin reorganization. We investigated the role of cofilin phosphorylation by LIMK1 in SDF-1α-induced chemotaxis of T lymphocytes. SDF-1α significantly induced the activation of LIMK1 in Jurkat human leukemic T cells and peripheral blood lymphocytes. SDF-1α also induced cofilin phosphorylation, actin reorganization, and activation of small GTPases, Rho, Rac, and Cdc42, in Jurkat cells. Pretreatment with pertussis toxin inhibited SDF-1α-induced LIMK1 activation, thus indicating that Gi protein is involved in LIMK1 activation. Expression of dominant negative Rac (DN-Rac), but not DN-Rho or DN-Cdc42, blocked SDF-1α-induced activation of LIMK1, which means that SDF-1α-induced LIMK1 activation is mediated by Rac but not by Rho or Cdc42. We used a cell-permeable peptide (S3 peptide) that contains the phosphorylation site (Ser-3) of cofilin to inhibit the cellular function of LIMK1. S3 peptide inhibited the kinase activity of LIMK1 in vitro. Treatment of Jurkat cells with S3 peptide inhibited the SDF-1α-induced cofilin phosphorylation, actin reorganization, and chemotactic response of Jurkat cells. These results suggest that the phosphorylation of cofilin by LIMK1 plays a critical role in the SDF-1α-induced chemotactic response of T lymphocytes.

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Interferon-g Upregulates the c-Met/Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor Expression in Alveolar Epithelial Cells

In the repair process after lung injury, the regeneration of alveolar epithelial cells plays an important role by covering the damaged alveolar wall and preventing the activated fibroblasts from invading the intra- alveolar spaces. Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a potent mitogen for alveolar epithelial cells and has been reported to be capable of repressing the fibrosing process by connecting to the c-Met/HGF receptor on alveolar epithelial cells. However, it has been reported that the c-Met expression was downregulated in an acute phase of lung injury, which may limit the effect of HGF for therapeutic use. In the present study we observed that interferon (IFN)-γ upregulates the c-Met messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein expression in A549 alveolar epithelial cells. We analyzed the mechanism of this upregulation and found that IFN-γ enhances the transcription of the c-met proto-oncogene, and that it does not prolong the stability of the c-Met mRNA. HGF is known to act as a motogen as well as a mitogen for epithelial cells. We also found that the migratory activity of A549 cells induced by HGF is strongly enhanced by preincubation with IFN-γ. Finally, we administered recombinant IFN-γ to C57BL/6 mice and confirmed that this upregulation is also observed in vivo. These results suggest that the combination of HGF and IFN-γ co

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NADPH oxidase activity is required for endothelial cell proliferation and migration

NADPH oxidase has been shown to play an important role in cardiovascular biology. The goal of the present study was to determine whether NADPH oxidase activity is important for endothelial cell growth and migration. In proliferation assays, growth factor- or serum-induced DNA synthesis in three different types of human endothelial cells was abrogated by inhibitors of NADPH oxidase, but not by inhibitors of xanthine oxidase or nitric oxide synthase. Moreover, vascular endothelial growth factor-induced migration of human endothelial cells was suppressed in the presence of NADPH oxidase inhibitors. These results support a potential role for NADPH oxidase in mediating angiogenesis.

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Lysophosphatidic Acid (LPA) Enhances the Metastatic Potential of Human Colon Carcinoma DLD1 Cells through LPA1

Lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) is a lipid mediator with diverse effects on various cells. Here, we investigated the effects of LPA on human colon carcinoma DLD1 cells. Northern blot analysis revealed that DLD1 highly expressed LPA1/Edg-2 but showed only low expression of LPA2/Edg-4 and no expression of LPA3/Edg-7 at the mRNA level. Western blot analysis revealed that DLD1 cells highly expressed LPA1 at the protein level. Using the Boyden chamber assay, LPA markedly increased DLD1 cell migration at concentrations as low as 10 nm, with maximum stimulation at 100 nm (3.6-fold increase). Checkerboard analysis indicated that LPA stimulated both the chemotactic and chemokinetic migration of DLD1 cells. LPA induced a dose-dependent increase in the proliferation of DLD1 cells (3.2-fold increase at 20 μm). Furthermore, LPA stimulated DLD1 cell adhesion to collagen type I (2.0-fold increase at 10 μm) and also stimulated the secretion of both vascular endothelial growth factor (1.4-fold increase at 20 μm) and interleukin 8 (19-fold increase at 20 μm) by ELISA. In contrast, as for matrix metalloproteinase, LPA had no significant effect on pro-matrix metalloproteinase-2 secretion and its activation, as measured by Western blot analysis. Thus, LPA, at concentrations that are present physiologically, enhanced DLD1 cell migration, proliferation, adhesion, and secretion of angiogenic factors, all of which are crucial for cancer metastasis. In comparison, other human colon carcinoma cells (HT29 and WiDR) exclusively expressed LPA2. LPA enhanced their proliferation and secretion of angiogenic factors, whereas LPA did not enhance migration or adhesion. Our results suggest that LPA acts as a potent stimulator of colon cancer progression, although the binding to LPA1 and LPA2 induces slightly different responses.

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Expression of c-ret promotes morphogenesis and cell survival in mIMCD-3 cells

c-Ret, a protein tyrosine kinase receptor, and its ligand glial-derived neurotropic factor (GDNF) are critical for early regulation of ureteric bud development and nephrogenesis. To address whether c-ret directly initiates epithelial cell morphogenesis, the c-ret receptor was expressed in murine inner medullary collecting duct cells (mIMCD-3, a cell line of ureteric bud origin, which has no detectable endogenous c-ret expression). Stable expression of wild-type c-ret was found to yield a constitutively tyrosine-phosphorylated receptor, with no change after the addition of GDNF. Examination of mRNA from these cells demonstrated the message for endogenous GDNF, suggesting that c-ret was potentially being constitutively activated by an autocrine mechanism. When mIMCD-3 cells stably expressing the phosphorylated c-ret receptor were cultured in a type I collagen matrix, they exhibited little GDNF-independent or -dependent branching process formation at early time points compared with the known morphogen hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) (48 h; control, 0.33 ± 0.33; GDNF, 1.0 ± 0.58,P = nonsignificant; and HGF, 6.33 ± 0.33 processes/20 cell clusters,P < 0.001), whereas extended culture (7 days) under serum-free conditions revealed a marked increase in cell survival and the spontaneous development of rudimentary branching process formation. Extended culture (7 days) of c-ret-expressing clones in type I collagen with the epithelial morphogens HGF and/or epidermal growth factor (EGF) resulted in the development of complex three-dimensional spiny cysts, whereas parental mIMCD-3 cells died under these conditions. We conclude that activated c-ret appears to mediate epithelial morphogenesis by prolonging cell survival and, in conjunction with activation of the morphogenic receptors c-met and the EGF receptor, initiates the events required for very early branching morphogenesis.

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Angiotensin II stimulates migration of retinal microvascular pericytes: involvement of TGF-and PDGF-BB

We studied the promigratory effect of angiotensin II (ANG II) on cultured bovine retinal microvascular pericytes. ANG II stimulated migration of pericytes by 86% at 10−8 M, but this effect was lost at 10−4M. Migratory responses were inhibited by the ANG II type 1 (AT1) receptor antagonist losartan but not by PD-123319, an AT2 antagonist. Addition of PD-123319 to the 10−4 M ANG II dose restored migratory responses. The promigratory effect of ANG II (10−7 M) was reduced by 59% in absence of gradient. Although ANG II augmented the latent matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) activity of the pericyte by 35%, it also doubled tissue inhibitors of MMPs. ANG II-induced migration was not altered by a broad-spectrum MMP inhibitor (GM6001); it was inhibited by ∼50% by antibodies against transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1/2/3 and was abolished by antibodies against platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. We conclude that ANG II induces chemotactic responses on retinal microvascular pericytes acting through the AT1 receptor. This effect is opposed by the AT2 receptor. ANG II-induced chemotaxis is mediated by PDGF-BB and involves TGF-β, but it is independent of MMP activity. It is also independent of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) because VEGF did not stimulate pericyte migration. ANG II can contribute to the regulation of retinal neovascularization by stimulating pericyte migration.

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Insulin-like Growth Factor-I-induced Migration of Melanoma Cells Is Mediated by Interleukin-8 Induction

Successive events of growth factor-induced autocrine and paracrine activation promote tumor growth and metastasis. Insulin-likegrowth factor-I (IGF-I) stimulates melanoma cells to grow, survive,and migrate. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) is produced by melanoma cells and has been correlated with melanoma metastasis, but the biological functions of this cytokine have not been elucidated. We show here that IGF-I-induced migration of melanoma cells could be inhibited by neutralizing antibody against IL-8. IGF-I overexpression induced IL-8 production in melanoma cells, especially in biologically early melanomas by accelerating its transcription rate via activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway. IGF-I treatment phosphorylated c-Jun and stimulated the binding of AP-1 but not NF-{kappa}B to the IL-8 promoter. These data identify IL-8 as a new target of IGF-I in melanoma and suggest that some of the biological functions of IGF-I are mediated by IL-8.