Fluorescent probes have been utilized to label leukocytes for both in vivo and in vitro studies of cell migration; however, the effects of such probes on migration have not been determined. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of two commonly used fluorescent probes on leukocyte chemotaxis. J774 macrophages were labeled with either calcein-acetoxymethyl ester (calcein-AM) or 2′,7′-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5-(and 6)-carboxyfluorescein, acetomethyl ester (BCECF-AM), then assayed for their ability to migrate to zymosan-activated serum (ZAS). Cell migration was quantified by two methods: visual counting of cells and measuring cell fluorescence. Using the cell counts, comparison of unlabeled and fluorescently labeled macrophages demonstrated that BCECF-AM decreased the number of cells responding to ZAS, while calcein-AM had essentially no effect. Neither probe significantly affected the number of cells migrating to medium alone. The inhibitory effects of BCECF-AM on cell migration increased with probe concentration (0.1-1.0 microM) and cell fluorescence. Cell viability was unaffected by either probe. In contrast to the results obtained by visual counting, measuring fluorescence of migrated cells did not reveal a significant difference between the chemotactic response of macrophages labeled with BCECF-AM and those labeled with calcein-AM. These experiments indicated that fluorescent probes can affect the chemotactic response and that inhibitory activity of these probes may not be detected when chemotaxis is quantified solely by automated methods.
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We evaluated the roles of the C-X-C chemokines cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) as well as the complement activation product C5a in development of lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. During reperfusion, CD11b and CD18, but not CD11a, were upregulated on neutrophils [bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood] and lung macrophages. BAL levels of CINC and MIP-2 were increased during the ischemic and reperfusion periods. Treatment with either anti-CINC or anti-MIP-2 IgG significantly reduced lung vascular permeability and decreased lung myeloperoxidase content by 93 and 68%, respectively (P < 0.05). During the same period, there were significant increases in serum C5a-related neutrophil chemotactic activity. Treatment with anti-C5a decreased lung vascular permeability, lung myeloperoxidase, and BAL CINC by 51, 58, and 23%, respectively (P < 0.05). The data suggest that the C-X-C chemokines CINC and MIP-2 as well as the complement activation product C5a are required for lung neutrophil recruitment and full induction of lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion in rats.
The first immune cell to arrive at the site of infection is the neutrophil. Upon arrival, neutrophils quickly initiate microbicidal functions, including the production of antimicrobial products and proinflammatory cytokines that serve to contain infection. This allows the acquired immune system enough time to generate sterilizing immunity and memory. Neutrophils detect the presence of a pathogen through germ line-encoded receptors that recognize microbe-associated molecular patterns. In vertebrates, the best characterized of these receptors are Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We have determined the expression and function of TLRs in freshly isolated human neutrophils. Neutrophils expressed TLR1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10—all the TLRs except TLR3. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) treatment increased TLR2 and TLR9 expression levels. The agonists of all TLRs expressed in neutrophils triggered or primed cytokine release, superoxide generation, and L-selectin shedding, while inhibiting chemotaxis to interleukin-8 (IL-8) and increasing phagocytosis of opsonized latex beads. The response to the TLR9 agonist nonmethylated CpG-motif-containing DNA (CpG DNA) required GM-CSF pretreatment, which also enhanced the response to the other TLR agonists. Finally, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (QPCR), we demonstrate a chemokine expression profile that suggests that TLR-stimulated neutrophils recruit innate, but not acquired, immune cells to sites of infection.