The objective of this study was to examine effects of increased gut fill and diverse developing environments on pregnant gilts’ behavior and physiology. Gilts were cross-fostered at 1 d of age and transferred to either an indoor or outdoor production unit. Littermate gilts remained in their different environments during development and were moved into individual gestation crates in an indoor gestation unit. Of the 42 gilts, 19 were fed a control diet of fortified sorghum-soybean meal and 23 were fed the same diet with 25% beet pulp (high fiber). Control sows ate 2.0 kg/d and high-fiber sows ate 2.67 kg/d in a large pellet (thus resulting in approximately equal energy intake and differing total dietary intakes). Pregnant gilts had behavior and immune measures sampled at 30, 60, and 90 d of gestation. The day x diet interaction was significant (P = 0.01) for duration of standing: sows fed high-fiber diets stood less on d 30, but on d 60 and 90 they and the control sows stood for a similar duration. Sham chewing duration and frequency showed significant (P < 0.05) effects of gestation stage x diet x environment. Gilts reared outdoors and fed high fiber increased sham chewing over gestation, whereas all other treatment groups decreased this behavior over time. Outdoor-reared gilts had greater (P < 0.05) frequency and duration of drinking behavior than indoor-reared gilts. White blood cell numbers were higher (P < 0.05) for gilts fed high-fiber diets than for gilts fed the control diet. Immune (humoral and cellular systems) and reproductive measures (farrowing rate and litter size) and plasma cortisol concentrations were generally not influenced (P > 0.10) by diets and rearing environments, suggesting that in spite of significant changes in behavior and feed intake gilts’ immune systems were not suppressed or enhanced. Behavioral data alone suggested that indoor-reared gilts showed fewer behavioral adaptations to the crates than outdoor-reared gilts. However, immune measures did not indicate that any treatments resulted in physiological effects indicative of stress.
link to pdf at: http://www.journalofanimalscience.org/content/79/6/1466.long
We evaluated the roles of the C-X-C chemokines cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (CINC) and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) as well as the complement activation product C5a in development of lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion in rats. During reperfusion, CD11b and CD18, but not CD11a, were upregulated on neutrophils [bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and blood] and lung macrophages. BAL levels of CINC and MIP-2 were increased during the ischemic and reperfusion periods. Treatment with either anti-CINC or anti-MIP-2 IgG significantly reduced lung vascular permeability and decreased lung myeloperoxidase content by 93 and 68%, respectively (P < 0.05). During the same period, there were significant increases in serum C5a-related neutrophil chemotactic activity. Treatment with anti-C5a decreased lung vascular permeability, lung myeloperoxidase, and BAL CINC by 51, 58, and 23%, respectively (P < 0.05). The data suggest that the C-X-C chemokines CINC and MIP-2 as well as the complement activation product C5a are required for lung neutrophil recruitment and full induction of lung injury after hindlimb ischemia-reperfusion in rats.
Twelve Angus Hereford heifers (avg wt=183.6kg) were allotted by initial liver copper (Cu) concentrations into one of two treatments. Control (n=6) heifers were fed a basal diet supplemented to provide a dietary Cu level of 10ppm. Molybdenum (Mo)-induced Cu-deficient heifers (n=6) were fed an identical basal diet supplemented with sodium molybdate (Cu:Mo ratio = 1:2.5), with dietary sulfur at .3% of the total diet. Dietary treatments were delivered for 120d, at which time Mo-supplemented heifers were considered Cu-deficient (286 and 49ppm liver Cu for control and Mo-induced Cu-deficient, respectively). Peripheral blood neutrophils were enumerated both before and after the administration of an inflammatory stressor, a subcutaneous injection (1.5mL) of Freund’s complete adjuvant. In vitro and in vivo measures of neutrophil chemotaxis were evaluated and the expression of two adhesion molecules, CD18 and L-selectin, were analyzed by flow cytometric procedures. Molybdenum-induced Cu deficiency increased (P<.01) the number of peripheral blood neutrophils; however, in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis was not affected. In vivo neutrophil chemotaxis tended (P<.08) to be increased in Mo-induced Cu-deficient heifers (1.55 vs 2.26 x 106 cells/sponge for control and Mo-supplemented, respectively). No differences in CD18 or L-selectin expression were detected between treatments. However, CD18 expression was decreased (P<.05) in both treatments following adjuvant injection. These data suggest that Mo-induced Cu deficiency results in an increase in peripheral blood neutrophil number, without altering chemotactic ability and adhesion molecule expression.
link to pdf at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8923191