Leukotriene B(4) (LTB(4)) is a potent chemoattractant active on multiple leukocytes, including neutrophils, macrophages, and eosinophils, and is implicated in the pathogenesis of a variety of inflammatory processes. A seven transmembrane-spanning, G protein-coupled receptor, called BLTR (LTB(4) receptor), has recently been identified as an LTB(4) receptor. To determine if BLTR is the sole receptor mediating LTB(4)-induced leukocyte activation and to determine the role of LTB(4) and BLTR in regulating leukocyte function in inflammation in vivo, we generated a BLTR-deficient mouse by targeted gene disruption. This mouse reveals that BLTR alone is responsible for LTB(4)-mediated leukocyte calcium flux, chemotaxis, and firm adhesion to endothelium in vivo. Furthermore, despite the apparent functional redundancy with other chemoattractant-receptor pairs in vitro, LTB(4) and BLTR play an important role in the recruitment and/or retention of leukocytes, particularly eosinophils, to the inflamed peritoneum in vivo. These studies demonstrate that BLTR is the key receptor that mediates LTB(4)-induced leukocyte activation and establishes a model to decipher the functional roles of BLTR and LTB(4) in vivo.