Glycoprotein-340 (gp-340) was first identified as a surfactant protein (SP)-D–binding molecule purified from lung lavage of patients with alveolar proteinosis (Holmskov, et al., J. Biol. Chem. 1997;272:13743). In purifying SP-A from proteinosis lavage, we isolated a protein that copurifies with SP-A and SP-D and that was later found by protein sequencing to be gp-340. We have shown that soluble gp-340 binds SP-A in a calcium-dependent manner independent of the lectin activity of SP-A. To examine the functional significance of this interaction, we tested the ability of soluble gp-340 to block SP-A binding to and stimulation of the chemotaxis of alveolar macrophages. We found that gp-340 does not affect the binding of SP-A to alveolar macrophages over a wide range of SP-A concentrations, nor does it inhibit the ability of SP-A to stimulate macrophage chemotaxis. We also found that gp-340 alone stimulates the random migration (chemokinesis) of alveolar macrophages in a manner independent of SP-A–stimulated chemotaxis. These results suggest that gp-340 is not a cell-surface receptor necessary for SP-A stimulation of chemotaxis, and show that gp-340 can directly affect macrophage function.